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Ingredients in Roman Recipes

Asafoetida A bitter resin with an onion like smell.
Caroenum A very sweet wine boiled until it is a third of the original volume, then mixed with honey.
Defrutum Either a thick fIg syrup, or must that's boiled until you have only a third of the amount with which you started.
Liebstoeckl Lovage: A plant with yellow flowers and is a kind of celery.
Liquamen/Garum A salty fish sauce. Most of the time you can replace it by salt.
Passum Very sweet wine sauce, made by boiling the must.
Pennyroyal Eurasian plant with hairy leaves and small mauve flowers, yielding an aromatic oil
Poleiminze A kind of mint.
Saturei A violet or white flowered plant that grows mainly in Southern Europe, and is used as a spice plant, especially for bean dishes.
Silphium Silphium was used in cooking, its sap was used as a medicinal treatment and as birth control, its flowers were used for perfume, and its relative scarcity caused it to become the basis of several forms of currency. Silphium's main use was culinary. It was almost ubiquitous in ancient Greek and Roman cooking, and appears in most of the recipes in Apicius, which is the most comprehensive ancient Roman cookbook. After it went extinct, it was replaced in recipes by Asafoetida
Spikenard Spikenard, also called nard, nardin, and muskroot, is a class of aromatic amber-colored essential oil derived from Nardostachys jatamansi, a flowering plant of the valerian family which grows in the Himalayas of Nepal, China, and India. The oil has been used over centuries as a perfume, a traditional medicine, or in religious ceremonies across a wide territory from India to Europe.
An aromatic plant with small leaves and red-purple flowers.
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