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Glossary of Roman terms and phrases - 'C'

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Caesar
A distinction given to those who were not emperors, but were generally believed to be the heir to the throne. This was one stage down from the distinction of Augustus
Caludarium
The hottest room in a Roman bath
Capitol
The centre of a town
Catervarii
Glaiators who fought in groups rather than pairs
Celtic
A general tern used to describe the tribes of Northern Europe during the Iron Age
Censor
An official appointed every four, later five, years to maintain the census of citizens and senators
Centuriae or Century
The smallest contingent of soldiers in a legion which consisted of 10 men. They were grouped into units of 10, giving a total of 100 troops under the command of a Centurion
Centuriation
A system for dividing land into blocks
Centurion
A rank in the Roman army. As the name implies, a centurion had 100 men in his command
Centuriones exercitatores
The training officer for the cavalry
Centuriones lanceariorum
The leader of the legionary infantry known as antesignani or lancearii.
Civitas
The name given to a territory occupied by a conquered tribe
Civitas capitals
The name given to the capital town in the territory occupied by a conquered tribe
Civitates peregrinae
A region withing a Roman province where the inhabiants were not actually Roman citizens, but were allowed a certain amount of self government
Civium Romanorum
An award given to non Romans on accepting Roman citizenship. Auxiliary units in the Roman army consisted of non citizens and they would receive this award for actions beyond the call of duty. This entitled them to display this distinction 'CR' in the unit's designation
Client
States in a Roman province that had their own rulers, but were governed by Rome
Client King
ruler of a territory within a province, or a ruler of a whole province who was allowed to reign over his people. This award was made to anyone who had aided the Romans. For example, not opposing an invasion. These kings were actually nothing more than figureheads, taking their orders from Rome
Clentela
A leader in a Roman province who accepted responsibilities on behalf of their Roman masters
Cohort
A military unit within a legion. There were 10 cohorts, each divided into six centuries within each legion. The name also applies to infantry units with the auxiliary army and to units within the Praetorian Guard
Cohors equitata
A military unit that was part infantry, part cavalry
Colonia
A town consisting of retired military personnel. On retirement, a soldier was given a regular income, a home and an allotment of land. Colchester was one such town in Britain
Colony
A town in a Roman province where Roman citizens settled. Especially applies to retired Roman soldiers. In Britain, the largest colony was in Colchester
Comitatense
A unit of the emperor's forces. A division in the imperial army
Comitia
A republican assembly of magistrates that passed laws, but had limited powers
Conicen
The trumpeter. There was one to every century
Consistorium
A council of state. The supreme law court
Consul
In the Republic, there were two officials who were appointed each year to the role of consul. In the case of emperors, they were the highest consuls in the land. The title was renewed every year. If a number follows the title, it applies to an emperor and refers to the number of years he has been chief consul
Consularia insignia
An award given to governors of Roman provinces
Conubium

The right given to a Roman citizen that enabled them to marry and raise a family

Cornicularius
An administrative officer within a legion

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