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Glossary of Roman terms and phrases - 'T'

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Trarii
Experienced soldiers, who used the same weapons as the Hastaii and Principes, but instead of a pilum, they had a long spear.
Tepidarium
The warm room in a Roman baths
Terra nigra
Pottery imported into Britain from Gaul. The British potters later managed to copy the designs and techniques used
Terra rubra
Pottery imported into Britain from Gaul. The British potters later managed to copy the designs and techniques used
Tessera
A tile used in a mosaic
Testudo
'Tortoise' The method used by soldiers to approach an enemy's fortified position. 27 troops would surround themselves on all sides and above with their shields and then advance under cover towards the enemy
Tetrarchy
Founded by Diocletian, this was an imperial system of rule where the empire was ruled by two Augusti and two Caesars
Thracian
A gladiator who wore on both legs, carried a small square shield, wore either a full visored helmet or an open faced helmet with a wide brim, and carried a curved Thracian sword with an angled bend in the blade
Toga
A garment worn on official occasions by Roman citizens
Toga praetexta
The 'toga of youth'. The customary dress for all Roman children on official occasions. It was a white toga edged with purple
Toga virilis
The 'toga of manhood'. When a boy became of adult age, he received this toga which was totally white.
Tria nomina
Roman citizens had three names which were referred to as 'praenomen', 'nomen' and 'cognomen'. This was the collective name for these three terms
Tribuniciae potestatis
The tribunician power assumed by an emperor on his ecession to the throne. The title indicated the emperor's right to be immune from prosecution, the right to pass laws, to block any laws put forward. He could also forbid elections and ignore the results of any elections held. The title was renewed each year and the number after the title refers to the number of times the title has been renewed
Tribunus
One of six assistants to a legion commander - the Primus Pilus. Usually a young senator learning the basics for his career
Tribunus laticlavius
The second in command in a legion
Triumph
This was the ultimate award given to the winner of a battle. It was one stage higher than an Ovation
Triumphal insignia
This was the ultimate award given to Roman in high office, who had won a great victory
Triumvirate
A group of three men who ruled the empire in place of one emperor. There were three periods of Triumvirate. 60BC - Pompey, Caesar, Crassus. 43BC Marcus Antonius, Octavian (Augustus) and Lepidus. The first one was unofficial in that it was part of Caesar's plan to take control of the empire. The second was officially recognised
Turma
The name given to 32 mounted cavalry soldiers


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