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Glossary of military terms - A

A B C D E F G H I J KL M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A copiis militaribus

'In charge of military supplies'. imperial secretary responsible for military expenses.

A rationibus

'In charge of accounts'. imperial secretary responsible for the treasury.

A rationibus castrensis

Camp accounting secretary'. offical responsible for accounting supplies and provisions.

Ab epistulis

In charge of letters'. imperial secretary responsible for military promotions.

Absentia rei publicae causa

Absence on behalf of the state. military service meant that most types of legal action against a soldier were frozen untill his discharge.

Accensus

'Reservist'. light legionary infantry soldier.

Acceptarius

Discharged soldier.

Acceptum

Amount received by soldier after deductions from his pay.

Acies

Battle line.

Acies duplex

Double battle lines.

Acies triplex

Triple battle lines.

Aclis

Javelin.

Actarius

Clerk.

Ad pila et spathas

Close quarter combat.

Ad signa

'With the standards'. present with unit.

Ad stercus

Latrine fatigue duty.

Ad triarios redisse

'To fall back on the triarii '. to have reached a desperate situation.

Adaeratio

Recruitment tax.

Adcrescens

Adolescent. soldier's offspring that would follow in the hereditary military service of the fourth century AD and received rations before taking up actual service.

Adiutor

Assistant. batman.

Adiutor librarii

Assistant clerk.

Adiutrix

'Supporter'. title borne by two legions raised from naval soldiers.

Adlocutio

Formal speech.

Aedes

Sanctuary in the HQ where the standards were stored and a likeness of the emperor was kept.

Aenator

Military musician.

Aerarium

Treasury. pay chest.

Aerarium militare

Military pension fund.

Aestiva

Summer campaigning camp.

Aetos

Eagle standard.

Agens in rebus

Late Roman intelligence operative.

Ager publicus

'Public land'. confiscated land belonging to the Roman state.

Agger

A - earth wall.
B - assault ramp.

Agmen

Column.

Agmen quadratum

Square marching formation.

Aichmè

Spear. javelin.

Akontistès

Javelineer. light infantryman.

Ala

'Wing'.
A - unit of the allies.
B - unit of auxiliary cavalry.

Ala dromedaria

Cavalry unit with attached camel riders.

Ala milliaria

Auxiliary cavalry unit with an establishment strength of some thousand men.

Ala quingenaria

Auxiliary cavalry unit with an establishment strength of some five hundred troopers.

Ala sociorum

Unit of several thousand soldiers drawn from the socii  or allies.

Alaris

'Wingman'. soldier serving in ala .

Alaudae

'Crested larks'. cognomen  for the legio  V originally raised by Caesar as a legio vernacula .

Allagè

Relief of duty.

Allectus

Chosen man. elite soldier.

Ambulatio

Marching exercise.

Ambulatura

Marching exercise.

Amentum

Thong attached to a throwing spear to increase range and accuracy.

Angareia

Requisition of transport.

Angaria

Requisitioning of transport.

Angusticlavius

Decorated with thin purple stripe.

Angusticlavus

Thin purple stripe on tunic indicating membership of the equestrian order.

Annona

A - provisions.
B - tax in kind.

Annona foederatica

Subsidy given to allies.

Antecursor

'Front runner'. advanced skirmisher.

Antepilanus

'In front of the spearbearers'. soldier stationed in first or second battle line.

Antesignanis

Elite legionary.

Antesignanus

Soldier fighting in front of the standards. elite legionary foot soldier capable of fighting as both heavy and light infantry.

Aper

Boar. one of the five original legionary standards of a republican legio  and symbol of the imperial legio XX and llegio X Fretensis.

Apollinaris

Dedicated to Apollo.

Aquila

Eagle standard.

Aquilae natalis

'Birthday of the eagle'. anniversary of the official founding of a legio .

Aquilifer

Eaglebearer. standardbearer carrying the legion's eagle.

Architectus

Constructor of torsion guns.

Archoon tou kontuberniou

'Commander of the tent party'. squad leader, term used as equivalent of dekarchos .

Arcuballista

Torsion gun. crossbow.

Arcus

Bow.

Arcuarius

Bowyer.

Areani

Late Roman scout/spy unit based in Britannia.

Aries

Battering ram.

Arithmos

Military unit. Greek equivalent of numerus .

Arma

Weapons.

Arma antesignana

The weapons of the antesignani . lonchè  or lancea  and aspis .

Arma legionaria

Legionary weapons.

Arma postsignana

The weapons of the postsignani . xyston  or pilum  and thyreos  or scutum .

Arma velitaria

The weapons belonging to the velites . hasta velitaris  and parma .

Armamentarium

Weapons storage.

Armatura

A - advanced weapons training.
B - weapon instructor.
C - soldier with advanced weapons training.
D - armament.

Armatura duplaris

Weapons instructor on double rations.

Armatus

Armed.

Armicustos

Soldier tasked with the administration and supply of weapons and equipment.

Armidoctor

Equivalent of doctor armorum . weapons instructor.

Armiger

'Weaponbearer'. armed man.

Armilausa

Military clothing item.

Armilla

Arm band used as military decoration.

Artifex

Artisan.

Arx

Fortress.

Aspis

Shield.

Aspis koilè

Curved shield used by legionary heavy infantry.

Aspis platea

Flat shield used by legionary light infantry.

Assiduus

Propertied citizen with military service obligation.

Aurum tironicum

Money tax levied instead of protostasia .

Auspicia

Supreme authority.

Auxilia

Auxiliaries.

Auxilia palatina

Late Roman crack infantry units.

Auxiliaris

Auxiliary soldier.

Auxilium

Late Roman infantry unit.

Auxilium palatinum

Elite late Roman field army infantry unit.

A B C D E F G H I J KL M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
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