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Glossary of military terms - S

A B C D E F G H I J KL M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Saccus undecimus

'Eleventh bag'. military burial fund.

Sacer

'Sacred'. belonging to the emperor.

Sacer comitatus

'Sacred following'. imperial field army.

Sacramentum

Military oath.

Sagitta

Arrow.

Sagitta ballistaria

Catapult bolt.

Sagittarius

A - archer.
B - arrow-maker.

Sagma

Pack saddle.

Sagmarius

Pack animal driver.

Sagum

Cloak.

Sagularis

Camp road running along the inside of the rampart.

Sagulum

Cloak.

Salararius

Soldier enjoying special service conditions. mercenary.

Salaratus

Soldier enjoying special service conditions. mercenary.

Salgamum

Extortion of goods or money, a common military practice.

Sambuca

Covered assault ladder.

Salpinktès

Trumpeter.

Salpinx

Trumpet.

Sarcina

Marching pack.

Sarissa

Macedonian pike.

Saunion

Spear. javelin.

Scala

Ladder.

Scamnum

Partition of military camp.

Scamnum tribunorum

Part of the camp used to house the tribuni .

Scapha

Scouting vessel.

Schola

A - social club.
B - military unit.

Schola palatin

Late Roman mounted imperial guard unit.

Schola principalium

NCO social club.

Scholarius

Late Roman horse guard trooper.

Scola

A - social club.
B - military unit.

Scola agentum in rebus

Late Roman military intelligence unit.

Scopae

Practice target.

Scorpio

'Scorpion'.
A - torsion gun.
B - artilleryman.

Scorpionarius

Artilleryman.

Scurra

Late Roman guardsman.

Scutarius

'Shieldbearer'.
A - soldier equipped with large shield.
B - guardsman.

Scutatus

Soldier equipped with larger sized shield.

Scutum

Shield.

Scutum publicum

Government issue shield.

Secutor

Bodyguard. batman.

Semaforus

Standardbearer.

Sèmeion

Standard.

Sèmiaphoros

Standardbearer.

Semispatha

Short sword.

Semissalis

Late Roman junior NCO.

Semivocale

Musical signal.

Seniores

'Veterans'. late Roman unit that detached men to create the core of a Iuniores  unit.

Sermo castrensis

'Camp language'. military slang.

Serra

'Saw'. serrated battle formation.

Sesquiplicarius

NCO on pay and a half.

Signa inferre

'To move the standards forward'. to advance, to attack.

Signaculum

Lead identification disc worn by recruits.

Signatus

Soldier that has been accepted for service.

Signifer

Standardbearer.

Signum

A - standard.
B - identification tattoo worn by soldiers.

Simplaris

Soldier on basic pay.

Singularis

'Singled out', picked soldier.

Skorpioon

Artilleryman.

Socii

Allies.

Socii navales

Naval allies.

Socii Nominis Latini

'Allies of the Latin name'. Latin league allies.

Socius

Ally.

Solliferreum

Javelin made wholly of iron.

Spatha

Sword. often, but by no means invariably a sword with a long blade.

Spathè

Sword.

Spathè makra

Long sword.

Speculator

A - scout/spy.
B - mounted legionary or praetorian serving as bodyguard and executioner.

Speculator Augusti

Cavalryman attached to a praetorian cohort.

Speira

Military unit.

Speira stratègis

Greek term for cohors praetoria . unit of imperial guard.

Sphendonètès

Slinger.

Spiculum

Javelin. late Roman pilum successor.

Spina

Reinforcing spine on shield.

Spolia

Spoils. plunder.

Spolia opima

The plundered weapons and equipment of a conquered enemy champion or commander. To dedicate the spolia opima  brought great prestige.

Spongia

Samnite triple disc body armour.

SPQR

Acronym for S(enatus) P(opulus)Q(ue) R(omanus). the senate and people of Rome.

Statio

A - military post.
B - tour of duty.

Statio expleta

Completed tour of duty.

Statio frumentariorum

Post of military intelligence service.

Statio vigilum

'Watch post'. police post annex fire department station.

Stationarius

Soldier stationed on outpost.

Statmouchos

A - billeting official.
B - civilian housing soldiers.

Stator

Military policeman.

Stellatura

Deduction made by officer from a soldier's allowance.

Stephanos

Helmet crest.

Stigma

Mark, tattoo.

Stimulus

'Goad'. type of defensive trap.

Stipendarius

Soldier serving for pay.

Stipendiosus

Soldier serving for pay.

Stipendium

A - regular soldier's pay.
B - year of military service.

Stratarchès

Legionary commander.

Strateia

A - military service.
B - equestrian officer post. Greek equivalent of militia .

Stratègos

Commander. general.

Stratègos hypatos

'Supreme commander'. Greek term for consul .

Stratia

Army.

Stratiè

A - army.
B - legion.

Stratiootès

Soldier.

Stratopedarchè

Commander. Greek term for praefectus castrorum .

Stratopedon

A - camp.
B - legion.

Strator

Soldier in charge of horse supply to the army.

Striga

Pair of barracks housing a manipulus .

Sub aquila

'Under the eagle'. on active duty.

Sub cura

Under the care of.

Sub signis

'Under the standards'. in military service.

Sub vexillo

'Under the flag'. veteran duty with lighter service.

Sub iugum missus

POW who passed under the yoke.

Subarmalis

A - arming doublet.
B - type of spear, possibly a short javelin.

Suboptio

'Under optio'. naval soldier subordinate to an optio .

Subpraefectus

Subordinate commander.

Subsidia

Supporting troops. auxiliaries.

Subsignanus miles

Soldier on active duty.

Sudis

Stake.

Summus curator

Senior administrator in charge of supply.

Suovetaurilia

Sacrifice of a pig, sheep and bull.

Symmachos

Ally.

Symmacharis

Ally. auxiliary.

Symmachikon

Allied or auxiliary force.

Symphoniacus

Flute player. musician indicating the rowing speed on smaller war ships.

Synaspismos

A - locked shields formation.
B - Greek term for testudo .

Synedrion

Military council.

Syntagma

Military unit.

Synteleia tiroonoon

Conscription levy.

Sysstratiootès

Fellow soldier, brother-in-arms.

A B C D E F G H I J KL M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
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